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Case Study Guide
This document is a guide to the case studies, intended to help readers decide what may be the most relevant experience for their own circumstances. It consists of five tables.

  1. Performance indicators. This table compares selected performance indicators for the cities
  2. The city problems. This table summarizes each of the city studies, identifying each problem issue and giving a reference to it in the source document, together with a summary of the diagnosed source of the problems, the actions already taken to confront it and the further reforms proposed to address it.
  3. The problem categories. This table collates the information on the basis of the different categories of problem identified, and brings together the different ways in which the problem has been addressed in different countries
  4. The reforms proposed.This table categorizes the information in terms of the types of reform proposed, setting out the actions already taken and the degree of success achieved.
  5. The influence of industrial structure. This table examines the relationship between the industrial structure in the different cities and the types of problems arising.

    Characteristics to Note
    A number of general observations can be made on these tabulations.

    • In most cases where fares are strictly controlled there is some combination of poor service quality and poor vehicle quality.
    • In most cases where there is a states owned enterprise, the budget burden of that enterprise is considered to be a major problem issue
    • The existence of a state owned enterprise is no guarantee that socially desired services will be maintained
    • Self regulation by small formal or informal sector operators usually results in “tour-de-role” despatching which causes low vehicle utilization and long access walking time for passengers
    • Excessively small formal private operations usually lead to on-the-road competition and passenger safety concerns
    • Moves to service contracting and competitively tendered franchising is seen as a solution of several different types of problem (low efficiency, low vehicle utilization, bad operator behavior, loss of social services)
    • The introduction of segregated busway systems is seen not only as a solution to congestion problems but also as a catalyst for several other reforms (vehicle standards, operator behavior controls, competitively tendered franchising, structural concentration)

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