This part of the Toolkit includes a number of recent case studies undertaken by specialist consultants in selected cities in developed and developing countries around the world.
The selection of cities was based on three considerations:
- Cities in developing countries that have problems calling for reform
- Cities in developing countries that have attempted market-based reforms
- Cities in industrialized countries where market-based reforms are relatively maturely established
The case studies provide numerous examples of problems which may be encountered, and solutions that have been recommended to address them.
In some cases these recommendations have not been fully implemented: there is often a temptation to “cherry-pick,” ignoring those recommendations which may be politically unpopular, such as de-regulation of bus fares. This often results in the failure of those recommendations that have been implemented.
Another common reason for failure is an unwillingness or inability to enforce regulations. Regulatory reform designed to improve a transport system depend on effective enforcement, and in many cities this has not been achieved.
The case studies fall into three categories:
- Developing countries
- Developed countries
- Reform options and systems
For more information visit The World Bank's Transport website.