This section provides in-depth detail about eight different reform options.
These options range from a public monopoly, through various forms of tendered services, such as gross-cost route contracts, to a completely unregulated system.
For each approach, information is organized into various topics, including legal and institutional issues, contract design, financial considerations, and monitoring and enforcement.
Possible options for reform
The principal urban bus system options are:
Choosing the right option
Not all of these options will apply to your situation. The interactive tool identifies the appropriate bus system options for you by taking into account the particular situation in your city and the objectives of the principal decision-makers.
This Urban Bus Toolkit does not set out to identify a system that will necessarily apply to the entire bus service in a city. It will identify the most appropriate system for the major portion of your service, but in practice there will probably be a mixture of systems.
For example, most bus routes may be operated under contract, but some peripheral services may be operated by unregulated operators. However, in some cities it may be possible to identify a single system that may be applied to all services.
Before you choose an option
To optimize your first experience before choosing a reform option, start with the evaluation section. Then use the interactive tool to identify the appropriate bus system reform option.
A note about contracts
The term contract is defined in the relevant sections. In the overall context of this toolkit, it embraces the various forms of bus service licensing, franchising and concessioning.