Excessive Transfer Requirements between Routes
If the majority of bus passengers must make a change of vehicle during the course of their journeys, then the number of boardings per trip will be high. This is normally unsatisfactory.
Some bus systems are designed on the “hub-and-spoke” principle, which intentionally requires a high proportion of passengers to interchange at one or more focal points. As long as services provide convenient connections, with good interchange facilities and through-ticketing, hub-and-spoke systems have a number of advantages, particularly from an operational perspective. From the passenger’s viewpoint, the route network is much simpler and regular, high-frequency services are usually available.
But where there are poor interchange facilities and no through-ticketing, and if services are infrequent, irregular or unreliable, the requirement to change from one vehicle to another will detract significantly from service quality.
In many cities, a high proportion of passengers must interchange between routes because of inefficient route planning but without the advantages of a hub-and-spoke system. Routes may not reflect passenger travel patterns, either because of poor initial planning or because the system has not been adapted as the city has grown and passenger requirements have changed.