This module, the third of eight comprising the World Bank’s Port Reform Toolkit, lays out an array of alternative port management and control structures, and explains for each structure the respective roles most likely to be filled by the public and private sectors. It provides a framework for all of the modules by defining the characteristics of specific management structures and the tasks and responsibilities to be performed by private and public sector entities. In particular, it identifies the problems facing port managers when adapting their organizations to the challenges of today’s global market place. The solutions and “tools” suggested in this module are adapted as much as possible to the port manager’s specific situations. Examples have been included illustrating approaches that have been successful, as well as those that have been less than fully successful. This module also notes how ports have adjusted organizational and administrative arrangements due to the strategic shifts and competitive pressures affecting the maritime sector. These developments are described in more detail in Module 2.