Our Work

PPIAF funding focuses on supporting countries and regions with the greatest need; lower-income countries and fragile and conflict-affected states. PPIAF also supports selected priority middle-income countries since they provide transferable lessons to lower-income countries. PPIAF also supports the creation of knowledge products. Activities PPIAF has been supporting for the last 5 years are featured in the interactive map below. 


PPIAF assistance can facilitate private involvement in the financing, ownership, operation, rehabilitation, maintenance, or management of infrastructure services. This support covers a broad spectrum of contracting approaches, from management contracts and leases to concessions and divestitures.  PPIAF supports a range of eligible infrastructure sectors: Energy: electricity generation, transmission, and distribution; rural electrification; and renewable energy and energy efficiency Water and sanitation: non-revenue water; solid waste management; small-scale water providers; and wastewater and sewerage Transportation: airports, ports, railways, bus rapid transit, light rail, and highways Telecommunications Irrigation      

Knowledge Activities

PPIAF’s knowledge portfolio is central to the implementation of its strategy, and a robust global knowledge agenda complements our grant-funded technical assistance. PPIAF focuses on the development of new knowledge through research and helps make existing knowledge more accessible to policy makers and other stakeholders. The offerings aim to identify solutions to infrastructure challenges and disseminate the best practices and lessons learned through PPIAF’s technical-assistance activities to our clients, donors, and the broader development community. 

PPIAF’s Program Management Unit (PMU) develops activities to address knowledge gaps identified through PPIAF’s technical assistance grants and interactions with clients. In most cases the knowledge products that address these gaps are short briefs or thought-leadership pieces, lessons learned, case studies, and best practice briefs that are based on content developed for grants. 

The PMU also generates knowledge by analyzing PPIAF’s activities in specific sectors or topics. These broader analyses allow the PMU to identify and share trends and operational best practices to further improve grant activities. 

PPIAF also works extensively with partners to identify and develop the PPP knowledge agenda through strategic knowledge initiatives and the call for proposals.  

Call for Global Knowledge Proposals

PPIAF holds a semi-annual global call for knowledge proposals to solicit ideas on specific topics and emerging themes in infrastructure, PPPs, and subnational finance. Proposals are accepted from eligible organizations, which include the World Bank Group, Multilateral Development Banks, bilateral development agencies, non-governmental organizations, and universities. For additional information on past knowledge call for proposals, including selected proposals, please see the links below: 

Strategic Knowledge Initiatives

By working with various strategic knowledge partners such as educational institutions, development institutions, and knowledge centers for PPPs, PPIAF supports the development of knowledge solutions for wider infrastructure problems. These solutions are multi-year initiatives and are conducted with institutional partners that bring their own expertise and outreach. A few examples of these initiatives are highlighted below. 

Featured Knowledge Activities

Sub-National Technical Assistance

Reliable and efficient infrastructure is essential for growth and poverty reduction. It lowers production and transactions costs, increases private investment, raises productivity, and removes economic bottlenecks. The demand for infrastructure and other services is huge but investments have not matched needs.

As the development paradigm evolves, urbanization and national fiscal constraints are placing new emphasis on sub-national entities to provide or finance infrastructure and other public services. Decentralization assigns new prominence to three types of sub-national entities: local governments, public utilities/SOEs, and the development finance institutions that fund them. Sub-national entities have broader mandates and responsibilities but they may not be able to fulfill them where there are weak financial and management capabilities, evolving regulatory environments, or thin local capital markets.

What the Program does

The objective of the SNTA program is to help sub-national entities develop their capacity to access market-based financing without sovereign guarantees to improve infrastructure services. The program provides technical assistance activities such as capacity building designed to improve the credit worthiness of sub-national entities and their investment projects, as measured by appropriate local credit ratings and/or actual access to financing. Such capacity building is expected to produce improved financial management, strengthened governance and human resource capacity, as well as improved investment planning and project preparation.

Sectors Supported

The SNTA Program works upon PPIAF’s eligible sectors: Energy, Transport, and Water and Sanitation supporting entities that primarily target infrastructure finance. In some cases, general obligation borrowing by a municipality might be designed to support other sectors, such as housing, health and education. This kind of financing would be eligible for support as long as infrastructure investment was the primary objective.

Countries Supported

Eligible countries include recipients of official development assistance as defined by the OECD Development Assistance Committee’s List. Requests from low-income countries will receive special consideration.

Type of Activities Supported 

The SNTA program typically provides assistance to the following types of activities:

Facilitating Access to Financing

The program can help sub-national entities secure capital for infrastructure development, typically from banks or bond markets. It helps with the preparation of financing plans, domestic debt market sounding exercises, policy reviews, assess legal and regulatory frameworks and support for the actual structuring and implementation of transactions to finance infrastructure projects.

Specific Performance Improvement

SNTA can assist sub-national entities to address issues that weaken their creditworthiness in the view of potential lenders. These activities  focus  on  reviewing financial management practices, helping to build financial performance improvement plans, strengthening revenue and expenditure management, establishing asset and debt management policies and procedures, and strengthen financial monitoring mechanisms. 

Credit Ratings

SNTA activities can help sub-national entities obtain a credit rating to demonstrate their creditworthiness to potential lenders and investors. Assistance can start with a “shadow” credit rating – an unpublished, unofficial rating done for diagnostic purposes; followed by technical assistance to make improvements. When a sub-national entity is ready, the SNTA program can help them obtain a formal rating that is disclosed to the public and the financial community.


The SNTA program includes support to upstream legal and regulatory reforms that facilitate actual borrowings. Situations requiring substantial policy change are not permitted by the SNTA business plan.

Applying for SNTA Funds

To apply for SNTA funding please follow the instructions on the Apply for Funds page and contact our SNTA team.

How the Program Works

Under its current strategy, the SNTA Program funds activities included in two of the five newly defined PPIAF Thematic Programs: the Creditworthiness Theme and the Access to Infrastructure Financing.

So far, SNTA has developed three programs within its portfolio of activities that reflect its programmatic approach which are featured below.

Featured SNTA Programs