PPIAF funding focuses on supporting countries and regions with the greatest need; lower-income countries and fragile and conflict-affected states. PPIAF also supports selected priority middle-income countries since they provide transferable lessons to lower-income countries. PPIAF also supports the creation of knowledge products. The objective of the Sub-national technical assistance program is to help sub-national entities develop their capacity to access market-based financing without sovereign guarantees to improve infrastructure services. The program provides technical assistance activities such as capacity building designed to improve the credit worthiness of sub-national entities and their investment projects, as measured by appropriate local credit ratings and/or actual access to financing. Such capacity building is expected to produce improved financial management, strengthened governance and human resource capacity, as well as improved investment planning and project preparation.